Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements continued Intangible Assets Subject to Amortization and Long-Lived Assets Our intangible assets that do not have indefinite lives (primarily customer lists and non-network internal-use software) are amortized over their estimated useful lives. All of our intangible assets subject to amortization, and long- lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If any indications of impairment are present, we would test for recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset group to the net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the asset group. If those net undiscounted cash flows do not exceed the carrying amount, we would perform the next step, which is to determine the fair value of the asset and record an impairment, if any. We re-evaluate the useful life determinations for these intangible assets each year to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to their remaining useful lives. For information related to the carrying amount of goodwill, wireless licenses and other intangible assets, as well as the major components and average useful lives of our other acquired intangible assets, see Note 3. Fair Value Measurements Fair value of financial and non-financial assets and liabilities is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The three-tier hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value, which prioritizes the inputs used in the methodologies of measuring fair value for assets and liabilities, is as follows: Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities Level 2—Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities Level 3—No observable pricing inputs in the market Financial assets and financial liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurements. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurements requires judgment and may affect the valuation of the assets and liabilities being measured and their categorization within the fair value hierarchy. Income Taxes Our effective tax rate is based on pre-tax income, statutory tax rates, tax laws and regulations and tax planning strategies available to us in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Deferred income taxes are provided for temporary differences in the basis between financial statement and income tax assets and liabilities. Deferred income taxes are recalculated annually at tax rates in effect. We record valuation allowances to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We use a two-step approach for recognizing and measuring tax benefits taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The first step is recognition: we determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. In evaluating whether a tax position has met the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, we presume that the position will be examined by the appropriate taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. The second step is measurement: a tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements will generally result in one or more of the following: an increase in a liability for income taxes payable, a reduction of an income tax refund receivable, a reduction in a deferred tax asset or an increase in a deferred tax liability. Significant management judgment is required in evaluating our tax positions and in determining our effective tax rate. We recorded provisional amounts in the consolidated financial statements for the income tax effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) based upon currently available information. Stock-Based Compensation We measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based compensation awards made to employees and directors based on estimated fair values. See Note 9 for additional information. Foreign Currency Translation The functional currency of our foreign operations is generally the local currency. For these foreign entities, we translate income statement amounts at average exchange rates for the period, and we translate assets and liabilities at end-of-period exchange rates. We record these translation adjustments in Accumulated other comprehensive income, a separate component of Equity, in our consolidated balance sheets. We report exchange gains and losses on intercompany foreign currency transactions of a long-term nature in Accumulated other comprehensive income. Other exchange gains and losses are reported in income. 56
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